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Beware of the Bashware: A New Method for Any Malware to Bypass Security Solutions. Gal Elbaz and Dvir Atias, Check Point Security Research. With a growing number of cyber-attacks and the frequent news headlines on database breaches, spyware and ransomware, quality security products have become a commodity in every business organization. Consequently a lot of thought is being invested in devising an appropriate information security strategy to non fiction essays, combat these breaches and providing the best solutions possible. We have recently found a new and alarming method that allows any known malware to bypass even the most common security solutions, such as next generation anti-viruses, inspection tools, and anti-ransomware. This technique, dubbed Bashware, leverages a new Windows 10 feature called Subsystem for academic papers done Linux (WSL), which recently exited Beta and is now a fully supported Windows feature. This feature makes the popular bash terminal available for Windows OS users, and in so doing, enables users to non fiction essays, natively run Linux operating system executables on the Windows operating system. Existing security solutions are still not adapted to monitor processes of Linux executables running on Windows OS, a hybrid concept which allows a combination of Linux and Windows systems to papers done, run at the same time. Non Fiction Essays. This may open a door for cyber criminals wishing to run their malicious code undetected, and allow them to use the features provided by WSL to hide from security products that have not yet integrated the proper detection mechanisms. Bashware is so alarming because it shows how easy it is to take advantage of the WSL mechanism to allow any malware to bypass security products. We tested this technique on most of the leading anti-virus and security products on the market, successfully bypassing them all.
This means that Bashware may potentially affect any of the 400 million computers currently running Windows 10 PC globally. Following this discovery, we updated our SandBlast Threat Prevention solutions, to protect our customers from Bashware. We call the life immigrant essay, security industry to take immediate action and to modify their security solutions to protect against this new method. The Bashware technique leverages the underlying mechanism of the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL). This feature, introduced as part of Windows 10, allows native Linux ELF binaries to run on Windows. Before diving into Bashware’s internals, we will first review the essays, inner workings of WSL. The WSL feature goes far beyond having the familiar Linux “Bash” shell on life of an immigrant, Windows OS.
It contains both user mode and kernel mode components, which together create a complete compatibility layer for running an environment that looks and behaves just like Linux, without having to fire up any virtual machine. Microsoft aimed to run the target application and non fiction, OS entirely within the user-mode address space of a single process, by implementing a way to run an application in an isolated environment, with reduced overhead. In order to essay, allow this new concept, Pico processes were introduced. Pico processes are the containers that allow running ELF binaries on non fiction, the Windows OS. These new types of processes are minimal and lack the thesis on child labor in nepal, structural blocks that are commonplace in regular Windows NT processes (PEB, TEB, NTDLL, etc.). By placing unmodified Linux binaries in Pico processes, WSL enables Linux system calls to be directed into the Windows kernel. The lxss.sys and lxcore.sys drivers translate the Linux system calls into NT APIs and emulate the Linux kernel. The WSL concept originally started as the Astoria project and Drawbridge project, designed to non fiction essays, run native Android applications on by robert, Windows systems. Essays. Later on, it shifted its focus and became the foundation for the service available today. Following multiple issues found in WSL’s initial release, Microsoft decided to offer this project in beta mode, and add a support section on their GitHub page to gather live issues from the community. After fixing most of the issues raised by the community and reaching a somewhat stable version, Microsoft officially announced the release of WSL at July 28, 2017.
The service will become available on the public release, starting from the Windows 10 Fall Creators Update (FCU), scheduled for October 17. Although WSL has become a stable feature and many of its issues are now resolved, it seems the industry has still not adapted to the existence of this strange hybrid concept which allows a combination of Linux and Windows systems to run at the same time. This may open a door for cyber criminals wishing to run their malicious code undetected, and allow them to use the features provided by WSL to hide from review, security products that have not yet integrated the non fiction, proper detection mechanisms. By Robert. Additional information regarding WSL internals can be found in “Appendix A”. Figure 1 https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/wsl/2016/04/22/windows-subsystem-for-linux-overview/ Bashware is non fiction essays, a generic and critical thinking in research, cross platform technique that uses WSL in order to allow running both ELF an EXE malicious payloads in a stealthy manner that could bypass most current security solutions. The key to the technique lies within the design of the Pico process structure. The Pico process has none of the common windows process characteristics, and in fact nothing that would identify it as a regular NT process at all. Essays. Nevertheless, Pico processes have the same capabilities as normal NT process and do not pose any less threat. Figure 2 – The four steps of Bashware. Essay. Bashware loads the malicious payloads in non fiction essays 4 major steps: Step 1: Loading WSL components.
In order to take advantage of WSL, Bashware must first verify that the WSL feature is essay example, enabled; this is achieved by inspecting the state of the Pico drivers (checking if lxcore.sys lxss.sys are presented in the windows drivers’ path). Essays. In cases where the feature is on child labor in nepal, disabled, Bashware will load the drivers using the DISM utility. Non Fiction Essays. This method appears to be the simplest, and the one that does not raise any suspicion. This way, by running a single command line silently in essay wrigley the background, invisible to the user, Bashware loads the WSL components and essays, is ready to move on to the next step. Step 2: Enabling developer mode. A common assumption is that the essay wrigley, risk of abusing WSL is minimal, since it requires developer mode to be manually set by the user.
However, it’s a little known fact that all it takes to enter developer mode is setting these registry keys: HKLM SOFTWARE Microsoft Windows CurrentVersion AppModelUnlock AllowAllTrustedApps. HKLM SOFTWARE Microsoft Windows CurrentVersion AppModelUnlock AllowDevelopmentWithoutDevLicense. Although these values are set by non fiction, TrustedInstaller , this can be easily done by any user (or application) running with local admin privileges. WSL feature was defined as a beta version and could only by robert work when developer mode is enabled. There is no native validation or any advanced security checks to verify these values or their modification. Bashware abuses these registry keys by turning them on non fiction, instantly, for just long enough to allow it to perform its malicious actions. Once Bashware’s operations are complete, the keys are turned back off making this operation practically invisible. Although Bashware has by now enabled WSL and entered developer mode, the review, Linux instance still doesn’t contain any file system. Essays. The next step for thinking in research methods Bashware is to download and extract the Linux file system from Microsoft’s servers. The user management installation is done by “Lxrun”, using the /install option. “Lxrun” command-line interface downloads and installs the essays, file system on Windows PC. The Linux-facing file system in essay wrigley WSL is Ubuntu 16.04, which comes with regular support for UNIX rights.
Bashware uses the Lxrun.exe utility, which downloads the Linux file system from non fiction essays, Microsoft servers. This process seems legitimate and runs silently. It’s interesting to wrigley, note that during our research we have found that this installation process is also vulnerable to a race condition vulnerability, which will be explained in depth in the “More Security issues” section below. Now that Bashware has set up a fully-fledged Linux environment on the Windows system, and is able to execute anything on both environments, the question is what could it do next? Obviously, our final goal was to show that we can run malware attacking the essays, Windows system from the Linux instance, although malware is not designed to be cross-platform in on child labor in nepal that way. We found that Winehq project is the perfect solution for that – a free open-source compatibility layer that allows Microsoft Windows programs to non fiction essays, run on critical methods, Unix-like operating systems. Even better – for those unfamiliar with it – Wine is not an emulator, but rather it translates Windows API calls into POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface), which is non fiction, perfect for our needs.
This is literature essay, exactly what we needed in order to essays, make a Windows malware run from the WSL environment, turning it invisible as well. Bashware uses the Winehq project capabilities and installs a pre-optimized wine project into on child in nepal, the WSL Linux environment. Next, EXE formats need to essays, be converted by Wine , turning its NT syscalls to POSIX syscalls. Later on, the Pico provider (lxcore.sys) will convert these POSIX syscalls back to NT syscalls, turning lxcore to the actual caller of this process. This way, a file running on the Windows OS can execute any known malicious payload from the Linux OS, where it remains hidden from most security products. As “Bashware” completes these 4 steps, it becomes a perfect demonstration tool for running any malware undetected, bypassing the most common security products – anti-viruses, inspection tools, debugging tools, and more. Bashware does not leverage any logic or implementation flaws in thesis labor in nepal WSL’s design. Non Fiction. In fact, WSL seems to be well designed. What allows Bashware to operate the way it does is the lack of awareness by various security vendors, due to the fact that this technology is relatively new and expands the known borders of the life immigrant, Windows operating system. However, we believe that it is non fiction essays, both vital and urgent for security vendors to support this new technology in by robert order to essays, prevent threats such as the ones demonstrated by Bashware.
Microsoft has already taken steps that should assist the security vendors to deal with the new security considerations presented by WSL, including a Pico APIs that can be used by AV companies in thinking order to non fiction essays, monitor these types of processes. Figure 3: Race Condition Bug Flow. During WSL’s installation process, “LxRun.exe” is responsible for downloading and extracting the Linux file system from Microsoft’s servers. Review. Under the non fiction essays, hood, the filesystem is example, saved in a hidden folder under %APPDAT% directory as a file named “lxss.tar.gz”. After saving the filesystem archive, “LxRun.exe” then continues to extract it into the same directory.
After this task is finished, the hidden folder contains a full Linux file system, later used by non fiction, WSL, and more specifically by BASH.exe. Microsoft has taken a lot of effort into by robert wrigley, protecting the Linux file system itself, such as prevention of Linux init modification, common injection techniques (such as LD.SO.PRELOAD previously discussed and disclosed by non fiction, Alex Iounesco). But what about the literature essay, protection mechanisms for the file system itself? During our research we noticed that the non fiction, Linux installation process is example, vulnerable to a simple race condition. If an attacker manages to modify the file system archive after it was downloaded but before it is extracted, there is non fiction essays, no check to of an immigrant essay, validate the authenticity of the file system. Thus, it allows the attacker to completely change the file system and load any Linux file system. The main issue related with implementing this technique is recognizing the non fiction, exact time in which the essay, archive should be switched. Luckily for us, Microsoft calculates a SHA256 for the downloaded file system, which saves the hash value into a file right after the download process is complete and before extraction begins.
For some reason, there is no other use for this value, other than signaling when to switch the file system archives. When a user wishes to use WSL, he runs #8220;Bash.exe#8221;, which is executed with the user’s permission. In every WSL run, NTFS partitions are automatically mounted under /mnt in the Linux environment, granting the ability to read write and execute NTFS from within the WSL. Essays. Figure 4: Trying to write a file into System32 directory from within the Linux environment unprivileged “Bash.exe” If a threat actor utilizes an admin token to launch Bash.exe, then Bash.exe + children will execute with full Admin token, including all privileges causing UAC bypass on the Windows side and full privilege escalation on the Linux side. Following security researches who pointed to the security bugs within it, Microsoft had opened a GitHub page for WSL, where people could report bugs. Academic Done. Microsoft also took several security measures, such as shipping Windows 10 with the feature off by non fiction, default. This means that WSL drivers and essay, user-mode management service components are not being loaded to the memory until the WSL feature is non fiction, enabled manually (we will further explain this below). Furthermore, the feature was defined as a beta version, and labor in nepal, could only work when developer mode was enabled. The WSL feature goes far beyond having the familiar Linux “Bash” shell on Windows OS. It’s a complete compatibility layer for non fiction running an environment that looks and behaves just like Linux, allowing it to run any type of Linux code: Linux build system, GNU tools and anything else needed in order to build and wrigley, test your application without having to fire up any virtual machines. WSL contains both user mode and kernel mode components:
User mode session manager service, which handles the Linux instance life cycle (LxssManager.exe). Pico provider drivers (lxss.sys, lxcore.sys) that emulate a Linux kernel by translating Linux system calls. Pico processes (“Minimal processes”) that host the essays, unmodified Linux executable (e.g. /bin/bash). At the heart of the WSL design is a new type of process, called Pico. Pico processes are minimal and lack the structural blocks that are common to regular Windows NT processes (PEB, TEB, NTDLL, etc.). Pico processes are the containers that allow running ELF binaries on the Windows OS. In Nepal. The concept of essays a Pico process was first introduced in review example a project called Drawbridge, and was originally used to essays, run an application in an isolated environment (a form of virtualization for application sandboxing). One way of establishing an isolated environment is by using a virtual machine, but this approach might cause resource overhead.
The Drawbridge project aimed to reduce this overhead by running the target application in a lightweight and secure container. The container has an isolated address space and is serviced by a component called “Security Monitor”. Despite being virtually empty if examined from within the Windows OS, Pico processes have the ability to interact with a Windows NT Kernel. The interaction is achieved by the Pico provider – a special driver which is responsible for the transition from Linux ELF to a running Windows executable. WSL uses Pico processes as containers for native Linux binaries. Pico processes are being monitored and serviced by a kernel component called ‘Pico Provider’ (implemented in lxcore.sys). The Pico Provider driver dispatches system calls and user mode exceptions made by the various Pico Processes. This processes/provider architecture provides the foundation for the Windows Subsystem for thesis on child labor Linux. The end result of essays this architecture is the ability to run native unmodified Linux binaries by literature, loading executable ELF binaries into a Pico process’ address space and non fiction, executing them above Linux-compatible layer of syscalls.
WSL executes unmodified Linux ELF64 binaries, by virtualizing a Linux kernel interface on top of the Windows NT kernel. Thesis On Child In Nepal. One of the kernel interfaces that it exposes are system calls (syscalls), a service provided by the kernel that can be called from user mode. The Windows Subsystem for Linux includes kernel mode drivers (lxss.sys and non fiction, lxcore.sys). Pico providers are responsible for handling Linux system call requests in coordination with the Windows NT kernel. The drivers do not contain code from the Linux kernel but are instead a clean room implementation of Linux-compatible kernel interfaces. Pico providers are essentially custom written kernel drivers which implement the academic papers, necessary callbacks to respond to the list of possible events that Pico processes can trigger. When a syscall instruction is made, the NT kernel detects that the request came from a Pico process. Since the NT kernel does not know how to non fiction, handle syscalls from Pico processes, it saves off the register state and forwards the request to essay, the Pico driver (lxcore.sys). Essays. The Pico driver then determines which Linux syscall is being invoked, by life essay, inspecting the rax register and non fiction, then passes the immigrant, parameters using the registers defined by non fiction, the Linux syscall calling convention. After the Pico driver has handled the syscall, it returns to the NT Kernel, which restores the thesis labor, register state, places the return value in rax, and non fiction, invokes the sysretiretq instruction to return to on child labor in nepal, user mode. User mode session manager service.
While running the Bash terminal, there are numerous procedures running under the hood of Windows OS: exe a Windows launcher service that communicates with the LxssManager.exe and spawns a new instance of WSL, executing the desired process. exe a user-mode management service (the LxssManager.dll service living in SVCHOST.exe), which provides an non fiction external-facing COM interface, passing information to the Pico Provider through its Device Object. Pico Provider driver (LXSS.SYS / LXCORE.SYS) which provides the kernel-mode implementation of a Linux-compatible Kernel ABI and life immigrant, API, as well as a Device Object (Devicelxss) for command control. Non Fiction. The detailed procedure explained above launches the Pico process that contains the critical in research, Linux environment. This Linux instance enables running ELF binaries through an interface which lxcore.sys exports. Lxcore.sys intercepts all ELF syscalls and non fiction essays, adapts them into NT syscalls. At the end of the day WSL is a very useful and essay by robert wrigley, innovative feature that provides developers with the familiar Bash shell and Linux environment in which they can run most Linux command-line tools, eliminating the need of creating a Linux virtual machine.
However, there is limited security awareness with regards to the WSL design, which allowed us to take advantage of this feature and run undetected malicious code inside a Linux instance.
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Marking Their Own Homework: The Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. When is industry self-regulation (ISR) a legitimate form of governance? In principle, ISR can serve the interests of non fiction essays participating companies, regulators and other stakeholders. However, in practice, empirical evidence shows that ISR schemes often under-perform, leading to criticism that such schemes are tantamount to firms marking their own homework. In response, this paper explains how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate the pragmatic legitimacy of review ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on normative approval. The paper traces three families of management theory on ISR and essays uses these to map the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. Essay By Robert? It identifies tensions between the essays, pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR schemes, which the current ISR literature does not address, and draws implications for the future theory and academic papers done practice of ISR.
Industry self-regulation (ISR) is widely used in contemporary global governance to provide public goods such as a cleaner natural environment, stable financial systems or ethical supply chains (Braithwaite 2008 ; Delmas and Young 2009 ). Non Fiction? Defined as the voluntary association of firms to of an control their collective behaviour (King and non fiction essays Lenox 2000 ), ISR schemes have been used to regulate issues from food labelling to privacy, from living wages to environmental accounting standards, and from pollution to Internet pornography. Proponents have argued that ISR can achieve public policy objectives at lower cost than government regulation because regulatory decisions are made by those with the best information and expertise to make them (Coglianese and Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). Thesis In Nepal? ISR can help improve social efficiency, that is, allocate resources to non fiction their best available uses across society (Maxwell et al. 2000 ). Essay Review? ISR can also incentivize firms to improve their social performance in areas such as the natural environment (Berchicci and King 2008 ), or labour standards in essays supply chains (Locke 2013 ; Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ). Despite theoretical and practical enthusiasm for essay, ISR, questions remain about its legitimacy. Non Fiction? Mounting empirical evidence suggests that all too often industry-led schemes do not lead to positive social benefits or fix the problems that they are designed to solve (King et al. 2012 ). Thesis In Nepal? Recent scandals on mislabelled horsemeat in food supply chains, privacy in the self-regulated newspaper industry, and the fatal collapse of the BSCI-certified Rana Plaza factory in Bangladesh have fed popular scepticism that ISR is tantamount to firms “marking their own homework”. However, as many teachers know, when done well, asking students to mark their own homework can not only be efficient from the teacher’s point of view, but also encourage students to learn from non fiction, each other and to reflect on their own performance. Marking their own homework may be a route to easy A grades, or may be a legitimate way to devolve responsibility, depending on the consequences, procedures and structures around the marking process. Thesis On Child Labor? Current ISR theory cannot yet tell the difference.
This paper has been inspired by the apparent mismatch between the promise and performance of ISR schemes. It maps what we know about the legitimacy of ISR schemes from management theory, shows where previous research from different traditions has focused, and uses this to explore blind spots, tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. Non Fiction? Explaining how and why the evaluation of ISR schemes differs so much between theorists is a vital step towards improving the performance of ISR schemes in practice. Focusing on the legitimacy of ISR also offers theoretical insight into broader legitimacy theory in essay contexts where powerful agents both design and subsequently participate in a governance scheme. Management research from within strategic, institutional and critical traditions, has each offered a wide range of assumptions and non fiction essays empirical explanations of ISR. Critical Methods? However, evaluations of whether ISR schemes are legitimate have so far been lacking in this largely descriptive management theory.
If legitimacy is considered at all, management theory usually focuses on pragmatic legitimacy , that is, on “the self-interested calculations of an organization’s immediate audiences” (Suchman 1995 : 578). Current management theory has paid less attention to moral legitimacy , that is, a normative evaluation of whether ISR participation is “the right thing to do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). This paper builds on Suchman’s ( 1995 ) framework and separates the essays, pragmatic legitimacy of thesis on child in nepal ISR based on self-interested calculations, from moral legitimacy based on essays, normative approval. While all three management theory traditions have emphasized pragmatic legitimacy, too little consideration has so far been given to moral legitimacy. The paper enriches theory on the moral legitimacy of ISR by mapping Suchman’s ( 1995 ) three bases for academic, moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and structural legitimacy—against management theory traditions. Mapping debates in this way is useful because previous studies within each of the management traditions have tended to implicitly assume which aspect of moral legitimacy is most important based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the non fiction, empirical context.
This paper draws all three theoretical strands together for critical thinking in research methods, the first time and provides a springboard to examine tensions and blind spots on the legitimacy of ISR. The paper concludes with elaborating directions for future research on ISR, legitimacy theory and ISR in practice. Management Theories of Industry Self-Regulation. Industry self-regulation is the voluntary association of firms to non fiction essays control their collective behaviour (King and Lenox 2000 ). ISR is “a regulatory process whereby an industry-level, as opposed to a governmental- or firm-level, organization… sets and enforces rules and standards relating to the conduct of firms in the industry” (Gupta and Lad 1983 : 417). Management scholars have theorized ISR participation from critical thinking, three main perspectives: strategic, institutional and critical perspectives, each of which is briefly introduced in this section.
The different perspectives illustrate how various theorists have understood ISR schemes, which has implications for whether and how the schemes are seen as successful and non fiction legitimate. Strategic Management Perspectives. First, within strategic management theory, ISR is described as a solution to at least one of two strategic problems: information asymmetry and thesis labor in nepal common pool resources (King and non fiction essays Toffel 2009 ). Critical Thinking Methods? Outsiders are unable to non fiction directly observe a firm’s social performance. Managers overcome this information asymmetry by participating in ISR schemes to of an immigrant essay signal their firm’s social performance. ISR schemes in industries such as toy manufacturing (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ), cut flowers (Prado 2013 ), sustainable agriculture (Blackman and non fiction Rivera 2011 ) or coffee (Reinecke et al. 2012 ) enable firms to signal their social or environmental quality. Common pool resources, on the other hand, require firms to collaborate to protect a shared resource such as the industry’s reputation, access to physical assets or supply chain resilience (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). Strategic perspectives emphasize that ISR schemes are often led by dominant firms that have the greatest interest in addressing the problem as with Nike or Walmart’s leadership in collective efforts to eliminate sweatshop labour from supply chains (O’Rourke 2003 ; Locke et al. 2007 ).
In contrast, institutional theory emphasizes the role of institutions in shaping collective actions on social or environmental issues (Ostrom 1990 ; Hoffman 1999 ). Industries can self-regulate because of legal ambiguity, or because stakeholders demand social performance that is higher than current regulatory requirements (Edelman et al. Labor? 1991 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). For example, Zietsma and Lawrence’s ( 2010 ) study of the evolution of decisions on harvesting practices in the British Columbia forest industry showed how managers actively participated in creating, maintaining and disrupting industry collective actions. ISR can also co-evolve with other institutions. For example, Lee ( 2009 ) showed how industry-led initiatives interacted with local and national policy content changes on certifying organic food. Institutional perspectives explain ISR as a way for managers to maintain conformance with regulative, cognitive and non fiction essays normative requirements in the institutional environment (Hoffman 1999 ; Matten and critical thinking methods Moon 2008 ). A third tradition, critical management theory, explains ISR as “first and foremost about control” (Jermier et al. 2006 , p. Non Fiction Essays? 627). Critical theorists focus on the discourses around proposed solutions to social problems, and the roles that these discourses play in protecting corporate privilege and power (Banerjee 2008 ). Managers use ISR to maintain control over the rhetoric around social issues through generating and maintaining symbols such as certifications, logos, social reports and academic papers partnerships. Boiral ( 2013 ), for example, theorized sustainability reports certified to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) A or A+ standard as “signs and images employed to control social representations” (p.
1037). Critical theorists highlight the fundamentally political nature of ISR, emphasizing the power and relational position of those who can influence the rules of the game (Levy 2008 ; Moog et al. 2015 ). Non Fiction Essays? A political approach emphasizes the fundamental imbalance between the critical thinking, size and essays power of global firms and literature essay the capacity and/or willingness of non fiction essays governments to review example adequately regulate them, leading to the need for industry-led schemes to fill a governance gap (Vogel 2010 ). The Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Management theorists from all three perspectives have provided rich description and empirical results on non fiction, the drivers, forms and consequences of of an immigrant essay ISR. However, amid accusations that firms and managers are marking their own homework, more research attention is essays, required on critical thinking in research, the legitimacy of ISR schemes. Essays? Legitimacy is a “generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions” (Suchman 1995 : 574). Focusing on legitimacy reveals the extent to which ISR schemes and life of an their participants are conforming to social norms and essays expectations, including whether ISR is an appropriate response to social challenges.
The concept of legitimacy originates in institutional theory, which suggests that managers adopt new practices to be perceived as socially acceptable and appropriate rather than basing their decisions on rational efficiency criteria (Meyer and Rowan 1977 ). However, both strategic and critical management theory also use variants of essay review example legitimacy. Strategic management theory tends to emphasize the extent to which the approval of essays various stakeholder groups influences firms’ social strategy (e.g. Critical Thinking In Research? Darnall et al. 2009 ; Kassinis and Vafeas 2006 ). Non Fiction? In contrast, the critical approach delves more deeply into the processes by which firms seek and earn legitimacy through their social disclosures and actions (e.g. Crane 2000 ; Fineman and Clarke 1996 ). Numerous typologies of thinking in research methods legitimacy have been proposed in the literature (see Bitektine 2011 for a review), but the non fiction, most widely used is Suchman’s ( 1995 ) distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Pragmatic legitimacy is based on the self-interested calculations of an review example, organization’s immediate audiences, whereas moral legitimacy is a broader normative evaluation of non fiction social appropriateness. Suchman’s original categorization also included cognitive legitimacy, based on taken-for-grantedness.
However, cognitive legitimacy is less useful in evaluating ISR because of the lack of stable and shared assumptions about industry’s role in governance (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ). Cognitive legitimacy is deeper than, and follows, moral legitimacy (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Since new forms of governance such as ISR are not yet sufficiently taken-for-granted to be able to evaluate cognitive legitimacy (Koppell 2008 ), this paper focuses on pragmatic and moral legitimacy. Others have applied Suchman’s distinction between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in related contexts such as implementing codes of ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), or of regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ). Academic Done? Some prior studies have also examined whether particular ISR schemes have pragmatic and essays moral legitimacy, as in the case of thinking in research methods Schepers’ ( 2010 ) and non fiction Cashore’s ( 2002 ) evaluations of the Forest Stewardship Council. Academic Papers Done? However, so far the literature lacks a thorough analytic review of the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of ISR. Such an analysis is much needed because different management theories of non fiction essays ISR imply different bases for legitimacy, and so provide different answers on when ISR is an appropriate form of governance. On Child In Nepal? The next section reviews the pragmatic legitimacy of ISR from each management theory tradition to provide a foundation for further analysis. The Pragmatic Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Pragmatic legitimacy of industry self-regulation. Maintain the non fiction, ability to respond to social issues on the firm’s own terms. Meeting stakeholder expectations flexibly and at lower cost. (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Coglianese and Nash 2001 ) Maintaining agency to academic papers respond to non fiction institutional pressures.
(Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Zietsma and Lawrence 2010 ) Exerting control over rhetoric and resources. (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ; Moog et al. 2015 ) Position firm to gain positive social evaluations from other stakeholders for labor, social performance. Signalling quality or behaviour. (King et al.
2005 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ) Meeting stakeholder expectations. (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Boiral 2007 ) Demonstrating prestige and status. (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ) Advantages increase with the number or esteem of members in an ISR scheme. Reputation commons and club theory. (Barnett and King 2008 ; Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) Institutions shape collective actions. (Ostrom 1990 ; Delmas and Montes-Sancho 2010 ) Authority of non fiction high-status actors to academic set norms.
(Levy and Egan 2003 ; Renard 2005 ) Learn how to cope with social concerns where there is uncertainty about non fiction essays, social issues firms face and how to deal with them. Learning as a competitively valuable capability. Mimetic isomorphism and shared norms. (Braithwaite 2008 ; Matten and Moon 2008 ; Haack et al. 2012 ) Diffusing shared rhetoric. (Green 2004 ; Christensen et al. Academic Papers Done? 2013 ) Works cited are illustrative only. Where examples of strict industry self-regulation could not be found, examples are from the related contexts of self-regulation by individual firms or multi-stakeholder partnerships. The first set of benefits for ISR participants is to maintain the ability to respond to social issues on their own terms. For example, in 1999 companies collaborated through the US Better Business Bureau to introduce BBBOnline, a self-assessed and industry-monitored online privacy seal in an attempt to pre-empt and shape a new set of laws on Internet privacy introduced in the USA in 2001 (Haufler 2001 ). Strategic management theory explains that firms may use ISR to strategically pre-empt costly sanctions or requirements from governments, NGOs, consumer groups or other stakeholders (Majumdar and Marcus 2001 ; Fleckinger and non fiction essays Glachant 2011 ). Institutional theories describe ISR as a strategic response to essay wrigley institutional pressures, where managers try to retain agency within the constraints of non fiction essays actual or potential regulatory control (Oliver 1991 ; Hoffman 1999 ; Wijen 2014 ). Critical Thinking Methods? A critical perspective focuses on how industry incumbents use their privileged economic and political position to maintain control not only non fiction of the literature essay, governance but also of the rhetoric around social issues (Jermier et al.
2006 ). Non Fiction? Bartley ( 2005 ), for example, showed how the essay, US apparel industry succeeded in replacing a discourse of legal compliance with one based on compliance to voluntary industry codes in response to rising stakeholder concerns about essays, sweatshop labour. This enabled firms to maintain control over compliance through participating in the Fair Labor Association (FLA) to certify labour standards. Thus, all three management theories recognize ISR as a way for firms to retain strategic control over aligning their own interests with other stakeholders, which is crucial for by robert wrigley, gaining pragmatic legitimacy. Firms also gain private benefits from ISR through earning or maintaining a sound reputation on non fiction essays, social issues. Critical Thinking Methods? Strategic perspectives emphasize that firms attempt to signal quality or behaviour through ISR participation to gain access to non fiction strategically valuable resources (Aravind and Christmann 2011 ; King et al. 2005 ). Institutional perspectives focus on the extent to which firms are seen to by robert wrigley be behaving according to stakeholder expectations (Jiang and Bansal 2003 ; Delmas and Toffel 2008 ). Critical scholars emphasize status and the extent to non fiction which firms are seen to be performing social responsibility (Fuller and Tian 2006 ; Boiral 2013 ). Thesis Labor? All three perspectives suggest that ISR can provide pragmatic legitimacy through symbolic participation in ISR schemes. Network effects are present when the value to the next incremental adopter depends on the number of others who have already adopted. Evidence on non fiction, ecolabels for green buildings, forestry and the apparel industry suggests that the higher the rate of adoption, the more an ISR scheme is recognized as a credible signal of literature review essay environmental quality, and the higher the benefit of non fiction essays adoption to review the next incremental adopter (Bartley 2003 ; Chan et al. 2009 ). ISR schemes can also be seen as “green clubs” (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ) that protect an industry’s common reputation (King et al. 2002 ). These schemes can help develop the collective reputation, resources, staff, networks and expertise that lower the cost to individual firms of participation and are particularly successful in “small worlds” such as forestry (Conroy 2007 ) or the Chinese toy manufacturing industry (Lin-Hi and Blumberg 2016 ) where all the major players know each other. Institutional perspectives emphasize that is non fiction, it safer for firms in uncertain and contested social environments to adopt a recognized scheme than to be left outside (DiMaggio and Powell 1983 ). The higher the ratio of certified to non-certified firms in thinking in research a local ISR scheme, the more likely are new entrants to non fiction participate to signal their similarity (Husted et al.
2016 ). A more critical perspective asks how ISR regimes gain the authority to govern particular social issues (Cashore 2002 ), highlighting the importance of high-status political actors in encouraging others to participate (Levy and Egan 2003 ). As Renard ( 2005 ) demonstrated in the context of fair trade labelling, networks can be vital to encouraging widespread participation in an ISR scheme, but can also further embed existing power structures within an review example, industry. To the extent that ISR schemes offer safety in non fiction essays numbers, participation can help earn pragmatic legitimacy from an organization’s immediate audiences. Finally, firms participate in literature essay ISR schemes as a way to learn in an uncertain environment. They can learn about their own organizational capacity to address social issues and how to meet stakeholder expectations more effectively (Banerjee 1998 ). Participation in a scheme can facilitate the transfer of non fiction best practices and on child labor increase communication and non fiction essays information sharing between members through direct contact (Kraatz 1998 ; King and Lenox 2000 ). Schemes can encourage indirect learning as they attract boundary spanners such as consultancy firms and auditors who help spread credible information from one firm to another, lowering informational costs (Delmas 2002 ; Jahn et al. 2005 ). Institutional theorists emphasize that managers also learn through observing others and conforming to shared local norms. ISR schemes can serve as templates that are easily adopted by newcomers.
Through interacting within the scheme, managers are made more aware of social needs and information spreads more quickly (Marquis et al. Thesis On Child Labor In Nepal? 2007 ). Non Fiction? Focusing on on child labor, the rhetoric of essays ISR, critical theorists also ask how managers learn to talk about essay review example, social issues and solutions (Green 2004 ). Non Fiction? Even weak ISR can serve as “aspirational talk”, and the beginnings of a learning process (Christensen et al. 2013 ), offering the possibility of aligning interests and gaining pragmatic legitimacy over review essay time. Private Benefits and Pragmatic Legitimacy of ISR. ISR schemes earn pragmatic legitimacy as participants persuade their stakeholders of the scheme’s usefulness. This section has outlined four private benefits revealed in non fiction prior ISR research that support interest alignment and pragmatic legitimacy of ISR. Although different management theory perspectives have analysed ISR based on essay wrigley, widely divergent assumptions, each has touched upon the core private benefits of non fiction strategic control, reputation, network benefits and learning.
Analysts in the strategic management tradition have tended to approach the benefits of participation from a narrow, enlightened self-interest perspective, and so have most clearly articulated the private benefits of ISR. In contrast, while critical management theories have mentioned the private benefits of ISR participation, this has normally been in on child labor the context of normative disapproval. ISR participation may secure control over rhetoric and resources (Raynolds et al. 2007 ; Gereffi et al. 2001 ) or reinforce the essays, authority of essay review example high-status actors to set norms (Renard 2005 ). However, while ISR schemes may offer private benefits and pragmatic legitimacy from the organization’s most proximate audiences, schemes may still not be in the overall public interest (Vogel 2008 ). Indeed, whether ISR participation contributes to the broader public good is an under-explored question in management theory. Pragmatic legitimacy alone is not an non fiction, adequate basis for evaluating legitimacy since it only essay review takes account of transactional interest alignment with immediate audiences. Since ISR schemes are socially embedded within a system of norms, their appropriateness needs to be evaluated in non fiction the broader frame of academic moral legitimacy.
The next section develops this by essays applying Suchman’s ( 1995 ) typology of moral legitimacy to papers done the ISR context to evaluate the essays, moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. The Moral Legitimacy of Industry Self-Regulation. Moral legitimacy asks whether a particular action, practice, scheme or organization is “the right thing to do” (Suchman 1995 : 579). It differs fundamentally from pragmatic legitimacy because it focuses on the ethical foundations of an organization or activity (Mele and Armengou 2015 ), and the reciprocal responsibility norms generated between an organization and its stakeholders (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Assessing moral legitimacy requires looking beyond pragmatic evaluations based on interest alignment, to a broader public perspective on thinking, the normative appropriateness of ISR. In his original review, Suchman identifies three alternative bases for moral legitimacy—consequential, procedural and essays structural. Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Moral legitimacy of papers done industry self-regulation.
Short-term, direct, measurable effects. (Rivera 2002 ; Blackman and Rivera 2011 ) Short-term behaviour change; longer-term field reconfiguration. (Hoffman 1999 ; Haack et al. 2012 ) Social, symbolic and material outcomes. Long-term and diffuse effects. (Boiral 2013 ; Christensen et al. 2013 ) Credible performance signal.
Monitoring and non fiction essays sanctions for non-compliance. (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ; Aravind Christmann 2011 ) Stakeholder disclosure and scrutiny, including regulators. Codification of norms. (Wijen 2014 ; Terlaak 2007 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ) Ambition of life of an immigrant essay performance levels. Transparency and accountability. Relationship to state. Fit with competitive and non fiction essays regulatory context. Demonstrates socially acceptable values and norms. Consistent with regulatory demands within field. (Locke, Rissing and Pal 2013 ; Lee 2009 ) Authoritative emblems and discourses.
Nested within governance networks. (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ) Consequential legitimacy focuses on the outcomes of ISR. Thinking In Research? This approach derives from a rationalist view that “organizations should be judged by what they accomplish” (Suchman 1995 : 580). Surprisingly little academic research has focused on the material outcomes of ISR schemes (King et al. 2012 ), and existing evidence on the outcomes of non fiction essays ISR schemes is mixed at best. Famous examples of ISR schemes that are generally assumed to papers improve participating firms’ social or environmental performance over non fiction essays time include the chemical industry’s Responsible Care Program (King and Lenox 2000 ), the Equator Principles for responsible project finance (Haack et al. 2012 ), the essay by robert, Forest Stewardship Council’s certification scheme (Moore et al. Non Fiction Essays? 2012 ) and ISO 14001 (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ). However, each of these has also been questioned in terms of their effectiveness and consequential legitimacy (see, for example, Schepers 2010 ; Boiral 2007 ). Empirical studies show that the environmental performance of participating firms in essay review example the US chemical industry’s Responsible Care, the non fiction, ISO 14001 standard and sustainable agriculture certification is no better and in some cases is worse than that of non-participants (Russo and Harrison 2005 ; Blackman and academic Rivera 2011 ; Gamper-Rabindran and non fiction essays Finger 2013 ).
The consequences of ISR schemes are notoriously difficult to define and measure. Indeed, one of the problems in evaluating ISR effectiveness is the life of an essay, different ideologically driven perspectives on ISR effectiveness from whose perspective, over what time period and as compared to non fiction what (Gupta and Lad 1983 ). Past studies have assessed the consequences of critical thinking methods ISR schemes by non fiction essays examining the literature essay, extent to which schemes fulfil the non fiction essays, functional or governance functions they were designed to serve (Hahn and Pinkse 2014 ; Wijen 2014 ), whether they encourage participation (Prado and Woodside 2015 ; Schuler and thinking in research methods Christmann 2011 ), whether they trigger pro-social behaviour change in participating firms (Terlaak 2007 ; Schuler and non fiction Christmann 2011 ), whether they improve allocative efficiency (Maxwell et al. 2000 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ) and ultimately whether they deliver material improvements in the social domains they are designed to address (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Aravind and Christmann 2011 ). Theorists have known that evaluating ISR effectiveness is controversial for a long time, but focusing on the different management perspectives brings shape to the debate. Each management perspective tends to emphasize different aspects of consequential legitimacy, leading to arbitrary emphases on some measures and not others based on the worldview of the analyst, rather than the details of the phenomenon.
Strategic perspectives on ISR tend to evaluate the consequences of thesis on child labor ISR by firm-level outcomes (see Table 2 ). This includes whether participation in non fiction ISR schemes generates private benefits to the firm such as the ability to critical methods charge higher prices (Rivera 2002 ), or improves firm-level social or environmental performance (Blackman and Rivera 2011 ). Given the focus on non fiction essays, the firm level, strategic perspectives tend to emphasize short-term, direct and measurable effects of ISR participation. In contrast, institutional perspectives consider not only review behaviour changes by individual social actors within a field (Terlaak 2007 ), but also the longer-term field reconfiguration as an ISR scheme becomes institutionalized (Hofman 1999 ; Haack et al. 2012 ). Critical perspectives examine longer-term and diffuse effects of ISR schemes, including how ISR alters symbolic representations of reality (Boiral 2013 ) and the overall governance within a policy domain (Renard 2005 ). Thus, consequential legitimacy has been a significant concern within each of the management theory perspectives, but in fundamentally different, and sometimes incompatible, ways. Since it is so difficult to non fiction essays evaluate the consequences of critical in research ISR, for whom and when, an alternative is to instead rely on evaluating the design of the schemes. Non Fiction Essays? Suchman’s procedural legitimacy reflects the in research methods, extent to which organizations embrace socially accepted methods and processes. In the absence of unambiguous evidence that an essays, ISR scheme has positive outcomes, firms instead demonstrate “sound practices [which] may serve to demonstrate that the organization is making a good-faith effort to in nepal achieve valued, albeit invisible, ends” (Suchman 1995 : 580). In the non fiction essays, case of critical in research methods ISR, the non fiction, procedural legitimacy of the scheme’s methods and processes is thesis on child, usually demonstrated through stringency of ISR design. Schemes with strong monitoring, third-party auditing, government involvement and highly codified processes are usually assumed to provide the most procedural legitimacy (Delmas and Terlaak 2001 ; Christmann and Taylor 2006 ; Darnall and Sides 2008 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). However, stringent ISR design is essays, neither uni-dimensional nor unambiguously clearly socially beneficial. On Child? ISR regimes vary along any of several different procedural dimensions. Essays? For example, Kolk and Van Tulder ( 2002 ) noticed that codes of conduct on literature essay, child labour from US companies were both more tightly formulated and more loosely monitored than codes from European companies. Despite some exceptions, the various and sometimes contradictory dimensions of essays stringency are not usually recognized in the literature.
This has led to of an immigrant essay ISR theorists from non fiction, different traditions focusing on different aspects of papers done stringency, and to talking past each other. Essays? Different management theory traditions tend to emphasize different dimensions of literature review procedural legitimacy and downplay others, regardless of whether this is the most salient in any given circumstance. Strategic perspectives usually prioritize monitoring and sanctions as a way to limit information asymmetry and free-riding (Lenox and Nash 2003 ; Darnall and Carmin 2005 ). In contrast, institutional perspectives emphasize codification and non fiction the flexibility provided by academic ambiguous norms in self-regulation (Edelman 1992 ; Wijen 2014 ), or interactions with the broader institutional context (Gunningham and Rees 1997 ; Lee 2009 ; Short and Toffel 2010 ). Critical perspectives often question the ambition or transparency of ISR schemes (Cashore 2002 ; Gilbert and Rasche 2007 ; Moog et al. Non Fiction? 2015 ) and the potential for ISR to pre-empt stricter government regulation through altering power relations and diminishing the role of the state (Renard 2005 ; Jermier et al. 2006 ). Thus, each tradition has a distinctive, but usually implicit view on life of an immigrant essay, which aspects of procedural legitimacy are most useful in evaluating the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes, with no one tradition addressing all aspects of procedural legitimacy. Structural legitimacy asks whether an ISR scheme is “the right organization for the job” (Suchman 1995 : 581). Structural legitimacy is less about consequences and essays procedural actions, and more about the structural appearance of an ISR scheme and its place within the broader governance system. Structural legitimacy is based on displays that the literature review essay, organizational form is appropriate.
However, as Suchman put it, “this sense of rightness has more to do with emblems of organizational identity than with demonstrations of organizational competence” (p. 581). Of the three bases of moral legitimacy, structural legitimacy has been least explored in ISR management theory. However, as with the other forms of non fiction moral legitimacy, different traditions emphasize different aspects of literature structural legitimacy. From a strategic perspective, structural legitimacy is about the fit between a firm’s ISR strategy and its competitive and regulatory environment (Rivera 2002 ). In addition to such coercive fit, institutional approaches assess whether ISR schemes are consistent with the values and essays norms within a field. Credentials such as ISO certificates can serve as “organizational degrees” (Boiral 2012 ), or useful objects to signal credibility (Delmas and literature essay Montes-Sancho 2011 ). Essays? A more constructivist view emphasizes how ISR schemes themselves serve as a way of essay wrigley narrating new standards for social or environmental performance (Haack et al. 2012 ). Critical perspectives claim that ISR schemes can serve as “organized exhibitions of authority” that demonstrate social appropriateness but without any real connection to improving firms’ social performance (Bowen 2014 ; Boiral 2013 ). Management Theories of ISR and Moral Legitimacy. The three management theory perspectives have evolved separately over the last two decades, resulting in essays parallel ISR literature talking past each other. Even when theorists from the different traditions examine the same ISR scheme, they can come to review different conclusions about the non fiction essays, scheme’s moral legitimacy by prioritizing a consequential, procedural or structural approach.
For example, consider the thinking methods, moral legitimacy of the American Chemistry Council’s Responsible Care Scheme, established back in 1988. Essays? Taking a strategic perspective, Gamper-Rabindran and Finger ( 2013 ) evaluated the consequential legitimacy of the Responsible Care scheme by example focusing on essays, the environmental performance outcomes of participating compared with non-participating firms. They found that participating firms actually increased their toxicity-weighted pollution compared with statistically equivalent non-participating firms, questioning the scheme’s consequential legitimacy. Gunningham’s ( 1995 ) institutional perspective focused on Responsible Care’s codes of practice and community engagement processes as adopted in literature review essay Australia, arguing based on procedural legitimacy that it is “the most significant and far-reaching self-regulatory scheme ever adopted in Australia, or arguably, elsewhere” (p. 61).
In contrast, critical perspectives emphasize symbolic importance of non fiction essays Responsible Care as a response to the 1984 disaster that killed some 2500 people at the Union Carbide subsidiary in Bhopal, India (Gereffi et al. 2001 ). The chemical industry needed to take steps to regain public acceptance after Bhopal, and “a code of literature review essay conduct, a certificate, even literally a ‘symbol’, was necessary to communicate those steps” (Matten 2003 : 224). Critical theorists explain this as an attempt by the chemical industry to maintain the structural legitimacy of the prevailing regulatory system and Responsible Care within it. Table 2 summarizes how moral legitimacy is evident within each perspective. Each theoretical tradition holds different implicit assumptions about the bases for moral legitimacy, although individual authors within each perspective do not usually make this explicit. Mapping the essays, bases for moral legitimacy across different perspectives reveals blind spots in essay review example ISR research within each tradition so far. For example, within the strategic management perspective with its focus on the comparative analysis of different outcomes in different circumstances, there has been inadequate attention to evaluating the long-term, indirect and social consequences of ISR schemes (King et al. 2012 ). In contrast, while critical perspectives may raise valid concerns about the ambition or authority of essays non-state actors on on child, social issues, they may also underplay the extent to which ISR schemes can lead to positive longer-term field reconfiguration (Haack et al. Essays? 2012 ).
Tensions Between Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy. This paper has so far treated pragmatic and moral legitimacy separately. However, the pragmatic legitimacy that can provide the basis for example, a social licence to operate is not the same as the more stable moral legitimacy based on ethical principles (Mele and Armengou 2015 ) and non fiction essays reciprocal responsibility (Elms and Phillips 2009 ). Each of the bases of pragmatic legitimacy outlined above—strategic control, reputation, network effects and learning—can interact with moral legitimacy. This section identifies tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and the management theory perspectives in which the tensions are based. This is essay by robert wrigley, useful to non fiction essays identify blind spots and to generate routes forward for future theory and literature practical evaluations of ISR. Strategic Control and Moral Legitimacy. Many ISR schemes offer participants options to decide whether to non fiction participate, and if so, how.
For example, ISR schemes may contain different levels of required performance so that participating firms can maximize their private benefits from joining. Discretionary schemes can offer the strategic control needed for managers to respond to stakeholder demands for social improvement, but to do so on their own terms. However, pragmatic legitimacy based on strategic control can have a dark side. The strategic goal of ISR participation can be to done limit the need to change behaviour, either in essays advance of regulation or later when the industry’s preferred approach may be subsequently adopted as a new regulatory standard (Ogus 1995 ; Fleckinger and Glachant 2011 ). The critical view also emphasizes regulatory capture and the potential for discretionary ISR schemes to manipulate or subvert stakeholder expectations without changes in firm behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ). Thus, while ISR schemes that offer strategic control can generate the flexibility needed to achieve pragmatic legitimacy, it can also threaten the of an essay, consequential legitimacy of an ISR scheme. Take for non fiction, example the US Green Building Council’s (USGBC) LEED standards, the leading green building standards in the USA. This points-based rating system certifies buildings as platinum, gold, silver or certified LEED green buildings. These may appear at first glance to be impartial endorsements of builders’ green performance. But a more critical look reveals that key industry players were heavily involved in literature review the authorship of the schemes, which has largely displaced the more rigorous standards that were originally proposed (Parker 2009 ). The USGBC is often mistaken to be a government agency, but was originally a coalition of builders, consultants and non fiction essays property developers who realized that they needed to respond to stakeholder demands for greener buildings. They designed a flexible scheme that offered firms control over which technologies to implement to earn a green building label and therefore meet the pragmatic legitimacy expectations of their immediate stakeholders.
This flexibility encouraged builders to of an essay strategically target the cheapest and least environmentally impactful building features, or to target the lowest acceptable tier of LEED certification, which offers very little material improvement to the environment from the building (Corbett and Muthulingam 2007 ). The LEED standards illustrate a broader tension between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR schemes can help participants maintain strategic control, but in order for this to be effective, participants’ interests must somehow dominate those of other stakeholders. Thus, strategic control may be incompatible with the essays, co-created, reciprocal responsibility that Elms and Phillips ( 2009 ) identify as the foundation of labor moral legitimacy. Non Fiction? This raises the serious question of whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy. Seeking reputation is a pragmatic motivation for establishing product-level certification schemes such as organic food or fair trade product labels, as well as company-level reporting and essay disclosure schemes. However, evidence on certification schemes suggests that they are not widely effective in improving firms’ social or environmental performance (King et al. 2012 ). Essays? This lack of effectiveness is at of an essay least partly because ISR schemes designed to confer reputation often emphasize persuasion to confer pragmatic legitimacy rather than the co-creation of non fiction norms and actions required for labor, moral responsibility. The institutional perspective explains how managers may get caught up in larger structural pressures that require them to implement, measure, monitor and report on social performance (Bromley and essays Powell 2012 ). Managers may participate in ISR schemes because they have been swept up in ratings or rankings systems that evaluate their reputation (Chatterji and Toffel 2010 ). Signing up to an ISR scheme can help signal engagement with social or environmental issues.
But certification schemes can also gloss over complexities in the behaviours and practices needed to generate better social outcomes (Wijen 2014 ). Review? ISR schemes that provide reputation and pragmatic interest alignment can hide considerable ambiguity on how the scheme is put into essays practice and in nepal whether it is the right organization for the job. Consider the example of CarbonNeutral ® certification. Essays? Achieving certification is intended to life of an immigrant help firms stand out from their competition and provide a “clear sign” that they are leading the way on climate change (Carbon Neutral Company 2016 ), that is, to offer pragmatic reputational benefits. To join this ISR scheme, participating firms need to meet a set of highly codified criteria that are outlined in a “Carbon Neutral Protocol” (Carbon Neutral Company 2013 ). Prospective members must commit to five steps to achieve certification: definition, measurement, set target, reduce emissions and communicate. Crucially, the “reduce emissions” stage differs from other definitions of carbon neutrality (Department of Energy and Climate Change 2009 ) because it allows all reductions to be made though offsetting and does not require individual firms to change their own internal emissions behaviours. Emphasizing the reputational benefits of joining an ISR scheme can lead to highlighting pragmatic and persuasive legitimacy rather than consequential actions. Microsoft explained its adoption of the non fiction essays, CarbonNeutral ® certificate because it found that it could not meet its previous 2009 commitment to reduce relative carbon emissions by 30% by 2012.
Microsoft’s new cloud computing business model was driving gross carbon emissions up, so in order to protect its environmental reputation the by robert wrigley, firm opted for the pragmatic legitimacy of achieving certification rather than the consequential legitimacy of actually reducing its own internal emissions (Microsoft 2012 ). Certification schemes such as this illustrate the tension in ISR between the pragmatic legitimacy gained through persuasion and the moral legitimacy of non fiction essays consequential changes in behaviours and performance. Network Effects and Moral Legitimacy. Some ISR schemes offer economies in papers done membership, or collective shelter from institutional pressures by following the example of non fiction essays dominant firms in the field. This is particularly common when firms’ reputations are interdependent (Prakash and Potoski 2006 ; Barnett and King 2008 ). On the essay review, plus side, ISR schemes designed to harness pragmatic legitimacy through network effects can lead to positive spillover and multiply positive impacts. For example, Reich et al. Essays? ( 2005 ) identified spillover effects from the voluntary adoption of critical in research methods a living wage, as other workers not directly covered by essays the scheme also experienced some increase in their level of pay. Thesis On Child Labor? In the UK, Wills and Linneker ( 2012 ) showed how participating in the Living Wage Foundation’s voluntary living wage scheme led to spillover benefits in related social domains such as improvements in health and well-being, improved family life, reduced welfare benefit costs and local positive externalities from better paid residents.
ISR schemes with network benefits, such as the Living Wage Foundation, can trigger social multiplier effects if they are actively connected with complementary institutions, increasing their outcome effectiveness even further (Pollin et al. 2002 ; Freeman 2005 ). Extensive cross-monitoring and non fiction dialogue can lead to networked legitimacy, where the ISR scheme draws together a nexus of interests and each participant gains its own pragmatic legitimacy (Mele and life Schepers 2013 ). However, this positive interaction between network effects and consequential legitimacy crucially depends on whether participants do actually improve their social performance. Critical theorists describe how network effects can support shared discourses and industry-led schemes that consolidate the essays, power of academic large corporations without altering corporate behaviour (Banerjee 2008 ; Bowen 2014 ). Network benefits can promote the deliberately low standards of powerful incumbents (Raynolds et al. 2007 ). These firms may have strong incentives to non fiction essays embed low standards as acceptable norms of corporate behaviour (Dunlap and McCright 2011 ). Doing so may award ISR schemes pragmatic legitimacy from their immediate audiences, but threaten the development of responsible norms as a foundation for moral legitimacy.
These challenges can be seen in comparing two ISRs in sustainable forestry: the FSC and SFI. Forestry companies face a shared reputational risk from environmental NGOs who cannot tell if their undifferentiated wood products are environmentally damaging (Bartley 2003 ; Winn et al. Essay? 2008 ). Both the FSC and SFI are voluntary ISR programmes that were initiated at essays the industry level: by academic papers the US forestry industry in the case of SFI, and by non fiction essays socially concerned retailers in the case of FSC (Cashore 2002 ). Example? In the early days of non fiction essays sustainable forestry certification, the US forestry industry actively resisted the FSC’s more ambitious standards, preferring instead to start their own lighter touch, SFI scheme in essay example order to attract more participants (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ; Meidinger 2006 ). The US forestry industry adopted the less ambitious SFI scheme, and the more ambitious FSC scheme failed to take off in the USA as it did in Canada, the UK and other countries (Cashore 2002 ; Conroy 2007 ). The lower environmental standards required within SFI compared with FSC became entrenched as the SFI standard spread. Worse, because forestry certification is interlinked with other schemes, such as for green buildings, this consequential legitimacy loss spilled over into non fiction essays other US industries when the USGBC controversially decided to award LEED points for using SFI-certified wood in their buildings. In this example, responsibility norms were co-created by scheme participants and their surrounding stakeholders. However, the performance level for SFI was established at wrigley a lower performance level than for essays, FSC. More generally, the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network effects crucially depends on by robert wrigley, the ethical foundations of the emerging shared norms (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). Without firm ethical foundations, networked ISR schemes may be awarded pragmatic legitimacy by their immediate audiences, but lack deeper moral legitimacy. ISR schemes vary in their potential scope for learning opportunities and non fiction essays the extent to which these learning exchanges are actually realized (Coglianese and Nash 2001 ). ISR can provide spaces for critical thinking in research methods, experimentation and innovative solutions to essays social problems, leading to opportunities for wider learning, conversation and interest alignment between participating firms and their immediate audiences.
ISR schemes designed for learning can improve both pragmatic and of an essay consequential legitimacy. For example, firms were more likely to change their waste management practices when managers said they joined EPA’s awareness-raising WasteWise programme to promote their relations with the essays, EPA and to learn about waste (Delmas and Keller 2005 ). Similarly, Locke’s ( 2013 ) study of essay by robert labour standards in apparel, electronics and metalworking supply chains showed the potential of learning through sharing best practices and capability-building in non fiction essays ISR to provide cleaner and safer workplaces for immigrant, workers than other scheme designs. Non Fiction? ISR on labour standards in global supply chains has helped managers incorporate and learn from the voices of traditionally excluded groups of literature review essay workers such as women export workers (Pearson and Seyfang 2001 ) and non fiction essays has also stimulated learning among activists about what worked in of an essay affecting change in previous campaigns (Freeman 2005 ). However, as with network effects, the consequential legitimacy of ISR schemes designed for non fiction, learning depends on what is learned and thinking in research methods shared within the scheme. Outcomes depend on the performance of the leading firms and the expectations they share with later joiners. The primary motivation to participate may be to non fiction essays learn how to avoid, deflect or pre-empt more ambitious regulatory requirements (Ogus 1995 ), or to co-opt or deflect stakeholder interests (Parker 2002 ; Raynolds et al. Wrigley? 2007 ). All four of the ISR schemes examined by Lenox and Nash ( 2003 ) in the chemical, textile and pulp and paper industries were designed with sharing mechanisms such as industry newsletters, annual conferences and member meetings. These were intended to help participants learn to manage the uncertainty surrounding new environmental demands.
However, in most of the non fiction essays, schemes, the performance bar was not sufficiently ambitious to offer learning to in research new members on reducing pollution. Similarly, Lin-Hi and Blumberg ( 2016 ) emphasized the non fiction essays, learning potential from schemes such as the Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI), which focuses on learning and capacity building to improve working conditions in global supply chains. However, two of the factories in the Rana Plaza building in Bangladesh that collapsed in critical thinking in research methods 2013 were participants in the BSCI. Learning within the BSCI scheme did not extend to assessing the safety or regulatory compliance of the physical buildings, or to empowering local workers to act when they identified cracks in the building before the collapse (Gross 2013 ). Opportunities to learn about facility safety were lost because of weak performance standards in non fiction essays the scheme (Chao 2013 ). As with network effects above, the moral legitimacy of ISR depends not only on interactions and review learning with stakeholders, but also on the ethical content of what is learned. Moral legitimacy requires the learning to have firm ethical foundations (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). However, these ethical foundations can become unmoored from the ISR scheme if participants do not place adequate emphasis on what and how they are learning from ISR schemes.
This section addressed each of the bases of non fiction essays pragmatic legitimacy in turn and used past ISR research from academic, all three management theory perspectives to explore potential tensions with moral legitimacy. Non Fiction? Focusing on thinking methods, tensions between pragmatic and moral responsibility offers several implications for ISR research. First, with respect to non fiction strategic control, the balance of evidence considered here seriously questions the consequential legitimacy of discretionary ISR schemes. Rather like students marking their own homework, it is tempting for managers to award themselves the easy points but without truly engaging with fundamental changes in their activities. This is even the review essay, case in performance-based ISR schemes such as the non fiction essays, USGBC’s LEED building standards. Essay By Robert Wrigley? Future research should pay more attention to the specific outcomes of flexible ISR schemes, particularly ISR schemes that offer choices on a range of performance standards. Second, the current ISR literature challenges the consequential legitimacy of certification schemes that offer reputational benefits. Certification-based ISR schemes often provide pragmatic legitimacy from firms’ immediate audiences as they reassure stakeholders that firms are taking their social obligations seriously. Within the broader social context, such emblems and credentials can offer structural legitimacy that an industry-led scheme is the right form of organization to address a social challenge.
However, increased structural legitimacy from reputation-enhancing ISR schemes is non fiction, often decoupled from the scheme’s outcomes. Thus, future research should further investigate the structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes. Finally, for life of an immigrant essay, ISR schemes that offer network and learning effects, the pragmatic reasons to participate can multiply the positive outcomes of an ISR scheme. This is an under-explored area in non fiction empirical studies and offers new optimism that there may actually be learning and relational benefits in firms marking their own homework. The current ISR literature is inconclusive about whether these network and done learning effects are positive or negative, since ISR outcomes depend on what is learned and shared within ISR. More research is needed on non fiction, formally modelling learning effects and network spillover in ISR.
A particularly exciting frontier for modelling might be when self-regulatory mechanisms interact, as in the case of the SFI sustainable forest products scheme and the USGBC’s LEED green building standards. Labor? So far, serious empirical treatments of the consequential legitimacy of non fiction essays overlapping, networked ISR schemes is lacking from the academic literature. The wide range of ISR schemes now operating provides an opportunity for future empirical research to on child in nepal explore these ideas both within and across industry sectors. In principle, ISR can provide flexible and innovative social improvements at lower cost than direct state regulation (Coglianese and essays Mendelson 2010 ; Gunningham and Rees 1997 ). However, mixed empirical evidence and some high-profile ISR failures have fed scepticism that ISR allows firms to mark their own homework. Although marking their own homework may not be unambiguously bad, current ISR theory cannot explain when or why this may be case, as it has not fully examined the legitimacy of ISR. While legitimacy theory clearly separates the pragmatic legitimacy of gaining a social licence to operate from a deeper, more stable moral legitimacy (Suchman 1995 ; Mele and essay by robert wrigley Armengou 2015 ), ISR research has been slow to recognize this distinction. In response, this paper mapped what we know about the legitimacy of ISR from non fiction, management theory, clearly separated pragmatic from moral legitimacy, and used this distinction to expose tensions and future directions on the legitimacy of ISR. This paper offers extensions to three strands within ISR theory. First, it provides integration across different theoretical perspectives within current management theory of critical thinking in research methods ISR. It derives an integrated approach drawing on strategic, institutional and non fiction critical management perspectives.
Pulling these perspectives into a single analysis is a significant contribution because previous management scholarship has been fragmented and context specific. Strategic, institutional and critical management theories of ISR have evolved in parallel, as have scholarly communities that focus on essay wrigley, particular content domains such as firms’ impacts on the natural environment, labour standards, ethical trading or diversity practices. Non Fiction Essays? This paper leverages and integrates across these parallel studies and offers the broader view needed to critical thinking in research methods explore the biases, blind spots and boundary conditions of ISR. Second, this paper moves beyond the largely descriptive analyses of ISR in the current literature to examine the non fiction essays, normative legitimacy of ISR. The framework contributes to ISR management theory by moving beyond the private benefits that provide pragmatic legitimacy to life essay ISR schemes to examine the more ethical foundations and shared responsibility norms that underly moral responsibility. Non Fiction Essays? The framework derived in Table 2 can guide a comprehensive evaluation of moral legitimacy based on the details of a particular ISR scheme, rather than implicitly assuming which aspect of moral legitimacy is papers, most important as has been so common in management theories of ISR.
Moral legitimacy can be evaluated according to what organizations accomplish (consequential), whether they exhibit socially accepted techniques and processes (procedural) and/or whether they look like the right organization for the job (structural). Focusing on different types of legitimacy gives different answers about the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes. Non Fiction Essays? Very stringent schemes can give procedural legitimacy, but this does not necessarily mean that they will have good outcomes (i.e. consequential legitimacy). Academic Papers? Similarly, a well-functioning scheme with positive overall social benefits can lose legitimacy if it does not somehow signal appropriate emblems or credentials to maintain structural legitimacy. Previous research has been hampered by blinkered approaches from within particular management traditions. This paper offers an integrative view of moral legitimacy of ISR based on the different bases of moral legitimacy, rather than the implied theoretical worldview of the analyst. Finally, the paper contributes to non fiction a burgeoning literature on essay example, the pragmatic and moral legitimacy of other phenomena such as codes of ethics (Long and Driscoll 2008 ), social enterprise (Dart 2004 ), NGOs as partners of industry (Baur and Palazzo 2011 ), regulatory regimes (Black 2008 ) or controversial projects (Mele and Armengou 2015 ). This literature recognizes that pragmatic legitimacy and essays moral legitimacy do not always go together. The extension made in this paper is to specifically examine three tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy in the ISR context. First, ISR schemes that offer pragmatic legitimacy through strategic control may be incompatible with the co-created, reciprocal responsibility required for moral legitimacy. Essay Example? Participants in ISR schemes cannot simultaneously dominate and responsibly reciprocate with stakeholders, leading to serious questions about non fiction, whether ISR schemes that offer strategic control can also have moral legitimacy.
Second, ISR schemes that offer reputational benefits rely on gaining pragmatic legitimacy through persuasion, which can become decoupled from consequential changes in behaviours. Essay Review Example? Focusing on the exchange and transactional aspects of reputation can help gain pragmatic legitimacy, but disconnect schemes from deeper, reciprocal moral legitimacy. Essays? Third, the moral legitimacy of ISR schemes with potent network or learning effects crucially depends on the ethical foundations of the scheme. In Research Methods? Ethically weak ISR schemes will lack moral legitimacy regardless of how many firms join or how much participants share learning within the scheme. Focusing on ISR has opened up some new frontiers in research on non fiction, the interactions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy. ISR is unusual in that firms play a dual role in influencing the design of ISR schemes and then deciding whether and how to participate. To the extent that firms can influence the example, design of ISR schemes, there is the non fiction essays, potential for labor in nepal, firms to non fiction deliberately design schemes to maximize pragmatic legitimacy. For example, ISR schemes could be designed to of an essay emphasize strategic control (as in performance-based ISR schemes such as LEED), or to emphasize reputation (as in certification schemes). These design choices can ultimately influence the moral legitimacy of the essays, scheme in action.
It is academic papers done, possible that the non fiction, tensions between pragmatic and in nepal moral legitimacy identified in this paper are a consequence of this dual role in essays ISR. This analysis challenges legitimacy theorists to assess whether these tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy are unique to circumstances where organizations both design and participate in governance schemes or are generalizable to other contexts beyond ISR. This paper was partly motivated by the mismatch between the promise and performance of ISR schemes, and a desire to better evaluate ISR schemes in academic done practice. Table 2 generates a wide variety of normative considerations in assessing the appropriateness of ISR schemes that takes evaluation of ISR schemes far beyond simple cost–benefit logic. Scheme participants and essays stakeholders can use Table 2 to generate a systematic set of questions to evaluate the legitimacy of specific ISR schemes. From a consequential legitimacy point of view, questions focus on the outcomes of the scheme: what are the outcomes for participating firms, non-participants and essay other interested stakeholders? What are the non fiction essays, direct and indirect outcomes over the short and essay by robert long term? Questions of procedural legitimacy include whether inclusion criteria are sufficiently ambitious to set new standards, whether the scheme is sufficiently codified to shape action and to what extent non-compliant participants are sanctioned. Structural legitimacy questions ask about the extent to which the authority of the ISR scheme is formally recognized within the relevant country or industry, whether the essays, ISR scheme reflects acceptable values for its social context and whether and how the form of the ISR conveys that firms are performing their proper social function. Systematic questions beyond simple short-term cost–benefit analysis have the thinking in research methods, potential to identify and develop relatively more socially beneficial ISR schemes in essays the future, and ultimately to improve ISR schemes in practice. The primary limitation of this analysis is that it is based on an analytic review of past research from life essay, a sprawling range of non fiction traditions and substantive policy domains.
A formal, systematic review could have been a useful way to generate a more comprehensive, unbiased and transparent literature review. However, a systematic review would also have had to be necessarily limited to particular policy domains or contexts or sets of journals (that is, theoretical tradition) to formally limit the scope of the review. By adopting a more analytic approach, this analysis linked up insights on ISR that would not usually show up in thesis on child labor in nepal a narrower key word search. It did not offer the replicable and more structured findings of a systematic review, but instead served as a conversation starter based on an analytical overview of a wide span of essays literature. This paper is also limited in that it did not attempt to life of an essay empirically explore, verify or test key insights. Future research on essays, the structural conditions of ISR schemes and their outcomes is done, particularly needed, and is now increasingly possible because of the very large number of schemes that could be compared. For example, the International Trade Centre lists over 210 voluntary standards operating in over 200 countries, many of which would meet the definition of ISR used in this paper (see www.standardsmap.org ). Similarly, www.ecolabelindex.com lists over 450 ecolabels across 25 industry sectors. Empirical researchers might collate existing evidence on the effectiveness of non fiction essays these standards or ecolabels and develop preliminary tests and categorizations on which ones have the life of an, most learning or network potential, and non fiction essays how they rank on the various dimensions of consequential, procedural or structural legitimacy.
As data availability improves, empirical researchers will be able to conduct more complete systematic reviews and even meta-analyses of the legitimacy of ISR in the future. This paper examined the legitimacy of ISR in response to mixed empirical evidence and of an immigrant essay accusations that firms are using ISR schemes to “mark their own homework”. Non Fiction Essays? It explained how current management theory on ISR has failed to separate pragmatic legitimacy of ISR schemes based on private benefits, from moral legitimacy based on reciprocal responsibilities, a firm ethical foundation and thesis in nepal normative approval. Mapping the literature has revealed tensions between pragmatic and moral legitimacy, and generated implications for theory on ISR and on legitimacy. Future ISR research should examine the full range of moral legitimacy questions about ISR. Only then can ISR achieve its full potential as a fully legitimate mode of governance in non fiction essays the contemporary economic system. The work was funded by the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC: ES/K007440/1). Compliance with Ethical Standards. The author declares that they have no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the essay by robert wrigley, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in essays any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
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Compare Life Vs Death Essays and non fiction Research Papers. ? Death Penalty vs . In Research. Life in Jail The death penalty has been one of the most debated topics in . America for years. Essays. It holds the same level of review example, importance in politics as abortion or gun control because it is such a controversial subject. Non Fiction Essays. The stance that I currently hold with this debate is closer towards life in prison. Not because I don’t fully believe that someone who kills a lot of people or does just horrible acts should 100% be punished and possibly killed themselves, but because I find more benefits. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in literature the United States , Death row 1119 Words | 3 Pages. Death Penalty vs Life Imprisonment. Death Penalty vs . Life Imprisonment The death penalty is a widely discussed issue in the United . States. Should the government still impose the death penalty for certain crimes?
Or should the essays punishment be life imprisonment? This essay will discuss the different viewpoints on the death penalty and life imprisonment. Capital punishment, also called the death penalty, is the pre-meditated and thesis labor planned taking of a human life by the government in response to a crime committed by the convicted person. Capital punishment , Crime , Death row 874 Words | 3 Pages. Life and Death When one thinks of essays, life and death , two colors come to mind: white and black. . White, the epitome of purity, is likened to life while black, the absence of color, depicts death . Life is often thought of as the first start and a new beginning. Essay. A young child is like a mere bud in bloom. Just as the color white is pure and unmarked, so is life . In stark contrast to this is the concept of death , which is essentially the end of a chapter and the ceasing of existence.
Black, the lack. Afterlife , Color , Death 1720 Words | 4 Pages. Life Imprisonment vs Death Penalty. Death Penalty versus Life Imprisonment In the non fiction United States, if one is found guilty of a crime of the highest degree, then one . Literature Review Essay. faces one of non fiction essays, two consequences of of an, utmost severity, the death penalty or life imprisonment. Either way, a life is taken away, literally or figuratively speaking.
Through sentencing of the death penalty, life will come to an end by lethal injection, electrocution, the gas chamber, hanging, or firing squad. Through sentencing of life imprisonment, life will come to an end. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Crime 917 Words | 3 Pages. 2006 Death As Life Life will end, of that fact there is no doubt. Death , or the end of . life approaches the non fiction essays living in various disguises. The acceptance of death's intention also varies among individuals. In Because I Could Not Stop For Death (Dickinson, Emily. Academic. [c. 1862]) for example, death is perceived as a kind carriage driver and it's intentions are so well disguised that the speaker does not even realize she has died. Essays. The intention of this paper is to express the belief that how life is on child lived. Alfred, Lord Tennyson , Death , Face 993 Words | 3 Pages.
What is this Book trying to teach us concerning the topic? This book is trying to teach us, the readers, that there are five main stages that help us . cope with a death of someone close or somebody that is non fiction going to die. Essay. The first stage that is mentioned in the book is essays Denial. Ross tells of how a person just does not want to be with anyone but himself or herself because they don't know why God is choosing them to die at that present time. The second stage Ms. Ross talks about is Denial. This. Afterlife , Death , Experience 1501 Words | 4 Pages.
The Farming of Bones: the Symbolic Portrayal of example, Water's Relation to essays, Death vs. Life Of An Immigrant. Life. “ Death is essays not the greatest loss in life . The greatest loss is literature essay what dies inside us while we live.” (Norman Cousins) . Death comes to us all, for some it marks the end of non fiction essays, a life , for others it reveals the road to a new path in which the soul travels. However it leaves behind a trail of darkness regardless for review essay, those who have experienced the loss. Through enduring the death and tragedies of those around us, we are tested by non fiction essays our emotions. The character Amabelle experiences the trauma of death and tragedy. Breath, Eyes, Memory , Dominican Republic , Edwidge Danticat 1584 Words | 4 Pages. The Mystery of Life and Death In the 1995 movie Braveheart, William Wallace presents life's uncertainties and how we should . live each day when he affirms, “Every man dies. Not every man really lives.” Sharon Olds's poem, “Summer Solstice, New York City,” is an ideal representation of this quotation and the questions that we have about how to thesis labor, live our day-to-day lives. This brief poem is about a man who is standing on non fiction, a rooftop contemplating suicide and the New York City policemen who are attempting. Braveheart , Death , Life 1084 Words | 3 Pages.
Death and the Regeneration of Life. Death and the Regeneration of Life Death and the Regeneration of Life written by Maurice Bloch . and Jonathan Parry focuses on the significance of symbols of fertility and rebirth in funeral rituals. Their book includes many theories that anthropologist have studied with the literature review essay idea of life and death . The idea of death and the regeneration of life changes with each culture and tradition. Everyone has his or her own opinion of how it shall work. Non Fiction. With the help of many contributors to the book, one. Afterlife , Burial , Death 2018 Words | 6 Pages. Life Is a Journey vs Life Is a Game. Analysis of Metaphor in an Area Outside of Literature essay “ Life is a Journey” vs “ Life is a Game” This week . Thesis Labor. we’ve learned about the impact that metaphors have on our lives. In Lakoff’s “The Family”, he discusses how metaphors have shaped our moral and political views.
He compares the “The Strict Father Model” to “The Nation-as-a-Family” and explains the role they have in shaping our nation’s political views. This comparison encouraged me to analyze other metaphors that seem similar, but are. 2007 singles , Debut albums , Emotion 1629 Words | 4 Pages. ENC 1101 City living vs . Non Fiction Essays. Country living There are many different factors to in research, overcome on why city or country living is better. There is a . lot to take into consideration because they greatly differ from each other. The fact of the matter is it is a difficult question because there is non fiction essays no right or wrong answer. Everyone is unique and has different preferences.
There are positive and negative elements of both scenarios such as the literature education and job opportunities, Crime and death rates, as well as the. City , Crime , Developed environments 1643 Words | 7 Pages. Socrates: on Life, Death and the Afterlife. BD Socrates’ views of death as represented in “The Trial and Death of Socrates” are irrevocably tied to his beliefs of what . makes life significant. For Socrates, life must be examined through constant questioning and one must hold the goodness of essays, life above all else. Consequently, even in the face of the un-good, or unjust in Socrates’ case as represented in his trial, it would not be correct to of an immigrant essay, do wrong, return wrong or do harm in essays return for harm done. Academic Done. Therefore, no act should be performed with.
Apology , Crito , Death 1419 Words | 3 Pages. Life and Death-a Journey of Choices. Life and essays Death -A Journey of Choices ENG 125 Hannah Martin February 7, 2013 Life and Death -A . Journey of Choices There is a great increase of capacity in knowing one have choices in life . Done. The metaphor for both works “The Road Not Taken” and “A Worn Path” is that each one had to use the power of decision. Essays. The theme behind Robert Frost’s poem “The Road Not Taken” and Eudora Welty’s short story “A Worn Path” is a journey of life changing choices that symbolizes hope, perseverance, and courage. A Worn Path , Eudora Welty , Short story 2668 Words | 7 Pages. Death is the permanent cessation of all vital functions in a living creature; it is the literature end of life . Non Fiction Essays. Monism is the belief that . the body and soul are one entity. Aristotle, for example, spoke of the body and of an immigrant essay soul being a harmony. Non Fiction. For Aristotle, the soul is critical thinking in research methods form: it is a non-physical aspect of humans, which allows the body to non fiction, achieve its potential, and without the body, the soul would be of no use as it would be unrecognisable.
It is academic done possible to base a theory of life after death on a monistic position. Death , Heaven , Life 1670 Words | 5 Pages. positive and essays achieve their goal through life (Mohammed, 2012, p.1). Both students and professionals is what prepare you for life . even though there is similarities between them, there are also difference between them as well. Thesis. As a student, they have a fun and exciting life such as partying, hanging out essays with friends, playing sports, involving in critical in research certain activities and more and also all of them have the right to make their own decisions, and start their own life ahead. These will have all the cherish. Education , Full-time , Part-time 1406 Words | 4 Pages. About Death Death is a dreaded word. It is essays a word that many people would not want to talk about.
Death is . considered a morbid word and many would not find this as an engaging topic. According to Patricelli (2007), “[d]eath remains a great mystery, one of the central issues with which religion and philosophy and science have wrestled since the beginning of human history. Even though dying is a natural part of existence, American culture is unique in the extent to which death is viewed as a taboo. Afterlife , Death , Life 2374 Words | 7 Pages. to fear death ? If so, what is the relation (if any) between the badness of death and the rationality of fearing it? If not, . explain why many people fear death . To Fear Death is to Waste Life When considering whether or not it is essay wrigley rational to fear death , I argue that the fear of death is an irrational fear. In order to support my argument, I will consider three main reasons why people fear death and how the fear of death ties directly to the badness that is non fiction believed of death . I will also. Afterlife , Anxiety , Death 1900 Words | 5 Pages. ? Life After Death : Summary Sheet.
You need to know the different theories of life after death ; . what strengths they have and literature essay what objections count against them. Immortality of the soul: the non fiction idea that there is a non-physical element of human existence that will survive bodily death . Requires belief in dualism, suggested by Plato (soul) and Descartes (mind). Other theories such as reincarnation rely upon the existence of an immortal soul. Life. The belief does not belong to non fiction, any particular religion and. Afterlife , Death , Heaven 888 Words | 3 Pages. Death Advantages vs Disadvantages. Death can be taken as an advantage or disadvantage, a blessing or a curse. It is an advantage or blessing as one is aware of life of an immigrant essay, his approaching . death and can prepare himself for essays, it. It is papers done a disadvantage or a curse as since one is aware of essays, approaching death , he realizes that human existence is pointless, which makes him unhappy, anxious and anguished. Among other things, Don DeLillo seems completely preoccupied with death and the difficult task of living with the knowledge of death in his novel White.
Anxiety , Don DeLillo , Fear 1225 Words | 3 Pages. Life Imprisonment as an Alternative to the Death Penalty. | LIFE IMPRISONMENT IS A GOOD ALTERNATIVE TO CAPITAL PUNISHMENT | Can life imprisonment be a good alternative to . death penalty? The issue remains unresolved. Even the review US Supreme Court that had abolished ‘ Death Penalty’ reversed its decision when new and less cruel methods of non fiction essays, execution were introduced. Of An Essay. Why does a society punish its members for non fiction, certain acts that are offensive and unacceptable to its laws and labor in nepal codes? This can be a starting point of exploring our dilemma about death penalty vs . life. Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Crime 1393 Words | 4 Pages.
Symbolism of Life and Death in “The Masque of the. Symbolism of Life and Death in The Masque of the non fiction Red Death One characteristic of a romantic piece of essay, literature . is the use of symbolism the authors use in non fiction essays their works. In Edgar Allan Poe's short story The Masque of the Red Death , symbolism is used and seen many times. Some things in the story, when taken at face value, seem peculiar and life immigrant confusing, such as the different colored rooms in the hallway, the purpose of the giant ebony clock, and the reasoning behind the non fiction essays guests' way of hiding their. Death , Edgar Allan Poe , Life 1049 Words | 3 Pages. Death and Life Gustav Kilmt was born July 14, 1862 in Baumgartner, Austria where his incredible talent was discovered at . a young age. At age fourteen, he entered the School of Arts and papers done Crafts of Vienna where he studied for the next seven years. For the non fiction next forty-six years, Klimt would present his talents in both his drawings and paintings; one of them being his artwork Death and Life . Thinking. In 1910, Klimt created this oil on non fiction, canvas painting but reworked and finished it in 1915. In 1911.
Death , Egon Schiele , Getty Center 769 Words | 3 Pages. what it could happen to them after life . For many people, death is a redoubtable event because they do not know what to expect . Academic Done. after their death . However, other persons, such as religious people are conscious of what to expect after their death because of their beliefs. Each religion has different ideas and different ways of looking life . Death , therefore, is viewed by essays different religions in review essay many ways. Although, different religions have a distinct conception of death , they all have something in common. Buddhism , Christianity , Heaven 1127 Words | 3 Pages. and according to The Death Penalty Information center there are 3,225 inmates currently on death in The United states Of America. . Non Fiction Essays. These inmates spend at least 5 to review example, roughly 25 years in prison before they’re executed. Forcing inmates to live out the rest of their life segregated from the rest of the essays prison, in a 6x9 x 9.5 feet high cell. Making this, and thinking in research methods the rules of the institution they’re in non fiction their day to day life . Which most people would assume the thinking methods day to day life of a death row inmate to be nothing.
Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Death row 818 Words | 3 Pages. Death and Assignment Euthanasia Life. Katia Mathieu March, 7, 2012 HUM 225 Ethics Professor Donn Mitchell Research Assignment Euthanasia Life is non fiction essays precious, but at academic done, the . Non Fiction. same time, living life isn’t easy, as there are many obstacles that a person will encounter as life progresses. Based on the lifestyles that we chose, such as smoking, overeating, and taking drugs, there can be many resulting factors that may lead a person to suffer as a result of their actions, i.e.: getting lung cancer from smoking. Although suffering may. Death , Euthanasia , Homicide 1928 Words | 5 Pages.
• Life after death can neither be proved nor disproved. This is essay review because one would have to non fiction essays, undergo physical death . in order to prove or disprove it (and by its very nature, disproving it would not be possible). This is in life of an essay contrast to something like astrology where one could undertake a study of people born at the same time and evaluate their personality traits and life outcomes at non fiction essays, a later time to review, see if there is any correlation with time of birth. There is no actual direct evidence against an. Afterlife , Awareness , Consciousness 962 Words | 3 Pages. Katie Zorens Mr. Essays. Bogo Humanities 1101-Tuesday 4 December 2012 Life After Death In Ancient Civilizations Death . and thesis labor in nepal afterlife had a big role in people’s life at the time of ancient civilizations. There are lots of non fiction, tombs which come from ancient times but you cannot find other structures as much as tombs now because most of them disappeared by passage of literature review, time.
It shows to us; death is a crucial topic for ancient times and people give importance to afterlife so they build strong and flamboyant tombs. Afterlife , Ancient Egypt , Ancient history 1825 Words | 5 Pages. Expect Death , Cherish Life Socrates’ and Augustine’s work is marked by the clear division between the respective . philosophers’ differing ideas about the body and the mind. On one hand, Socrates believes in the separation of non fiction essays, body and soul, with the mind living on forever, and the body serving its purpose only as protection. Augustine, on the other hand, believes the body and soul to be damned by God with death , while still having a more realistic view of the literature soul and body as separate. Death , Life , Metaphysics 1529 Words | 5 Pages. of such heinous crimes. Primarily speaking, the necessity of death penalty has been the prolonged clamour of victims' immediate family and essays . relatives of these predators who demoralize and disrespect the life of their preys. A plea for justice has always been the battle cry of these innocent victims who impatiently wait the critical in research methods verdict of this bureaucratic delayed justice system.
Moreover, some of these convicts are generally given life imprisonment which in the long run can be granted with parole; years. Amnesty International , Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States 1250 Words | 4 Pages. Life vs . Non Fiction Essays. Death Many have pondered upon of an immigrant essay the meaning of abortion. The argumentbeing that every child born should be . wanted, and others who believethat every child conceived should be born (Sass vii). This has been acontroversial topic for years. Many people want to be able to decidethe destiny of essays, others. Everyone in the United States is covered underthe United States constitution, and under the 14th Amendment womenhave been given the choice of abortion.
In 1973, Harry A. Blackmunwrote the majority. Abortion , Abortion debate , Abortion in the United States 724 Words | 2 Pages. Foster Philosophy M/W 9:25 December 5, 2012 Analysis of the Life and Death of life immigrant essay, Ivan Illyich Ivan's defining . characteristic is that he lives his life by the standards of others. Rather than relying on non fiction, his own good judgment to essay by robert, direct his moral life , Ivan relies on the beliefs and values of non fiction, aristocratic society. He believes that if he goes along with their life style, he will be happy and fulfilled with his own life . He begins to on child in nepal, act as one in his position should act. He gets married as. Death , Existence , Interpersonal relationship 1036 Words | 3 Pages. his or her life by terminating treatment when all's said and done. Often, these decisions concerning the care of a dying loved one confront . people from non fiction essays all walks of thesis on child in nepal, life (Butts and Rich, 2005) End of life is a concept that is often ignored despite the fact that everyone will die some day. It is because death is a part of life that people are familiar with palliative care given at non fiction essays, the end of life . Yet, the essay review example end of life concept is generally thought to non fiction, be something equated with human life . At least.
Death , End-of-life care , Ethics 1078 Words | 3 Pages. concept of life after death is incoherent’. Discuss. (35) For millennia, humanity has been plagued by the issues surrounding . life after death because the only way of essay, truly knowing what happens is to actually experience it, by non fiction essays dying. This means that we can only theorise possible outcomes and discuss key issues such as personal identity or immortality of the soul. Life Of An Immigrant Essay. Theories about life after death are all interested in whether or not there is a part of the human body which survives the death of all the. Afterlife , Body , Death 1588 Words | 4 Pages. The Culture of Life versus the Culture of Death During the 20th and non fiction essays 21st centuries mankind has encountered a major conflict . that is on child in nepal a civil war of ideas – namely the Culture of Life versus the Culture of essays, Death . The Culture of Death has been rampant. Thesis. Consider the non fiction first and second world wars plus the many other bitter conflicts, genocides, massacres and the killing fields sacrificing the on child labor lives of millions of innocent human beings. Consider the savagery of the non fiction holocaust. Consider the damage.
Abortion , Amnesty International , Birth control 2444 Words | 8 Pages. Legal Death Versus Medical Death New technological advances allow for patients to stay alive in situations that they normally . could not survive. This causes an increasingly problematic conflict between medical and essay legal systems. The Uniform Declaration of Death Act allows for a somewhat reliable definition for death in essays both systems. However, some situations still challenge the universally accepted definition of death . Lia’s situation is a perfect example of how a medical definition of death conflicts.
Brain , Brain death , Civil law 990 Words | 5 Pages. Death is an methods, inevitable part of life . It is a rite of passage that no one on non fiction essays, this earth is exempt from or can escape. All . Literature Review Essay. deaths are difficult, although some are inordinately painful and drawn out. Essays. Those with a terminal illness or who have suffered an accident that leaves them hovering between life and essay by robert wrigley death with very little quality of life often contemplate suicide as a means to stop the pain and suffering. With today’s modern technologies, people with terminal diseases often are able to live months.
Assisted suicide , Death , Final Exit 2494 Words | 7 Pages. the life after death : Jesus died and accepted his suffering on the cross for us so that we could all live happier lives. . Non Fiction. Jesus saved us all, Because of this Catholics believe he opened the gate of to heaven for us. ‘ Christ offered himself for our salvation’.( Luke 22:19) Then he took the bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them saying “This is my body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of me.” Christians believe that we cannot say for sure what happens after death . Life Essay. . Afterlife , Death , God 2439 Words | 7 Pages. Fatemah Professor English 101 11 November 2012 The City Life Vs . The Country Life Living in non fiction certain areas . pertains to the likes and needs of certain people. Some have a choice, others do not. Two main categories of living are the in research city and the country life . The city life being loud and exciting is reserved used for people with an on-the-go attitude. The country life on non fiction essays, the other hand is in favor of a more calming approach to living. These two areas are different in the aspect of living because. City , Ecology , Need 928 Words | 3 Pages. Diogenes vs. Socrates: a Life of Worth.
Ezra Hochman Wednesday/Friday 12:25-2:05 Diogenes vs . Socrates: What is essay example a life of worth? One can either write the story of non fiction essays, . their own life , or let other people and circumstances write it for him. Too often do citizens of the world follow the assumptions of society, as personal independence can seem frightening or uncomfortable. Both Socrates and Diogenes were of the mind that the purpose of human life is to constantly better one’s self by essay way of personal and spiritual growth. We are unable to. Athenian democracy , Human , Life 1805 Words | 5 Pages. Philosophy on Life and Death in Hamlet. Philosophy on life and death is usually determined by a number of non fiction, things. Religion, culture, traditions and family usually have . something to do with the beliefs humans might have.
During the course of a lifetime, experiences and accomplishments have a major influence on how we think as adults. During the play Hamlet, Hamlet's philosophies on life and death change significantly, due to the recent events in his life . In Hamlet's first soliloquy he reveals to the reader that he wishes he could disappear. Characters in Hamlet , Death , Ghost 967 Words | 4 Pages. existence after death . Death is the end of the functions of one’s body, but is death the end? Dualists, who are . those that believe the body and soul are separate entities, believe that there is life after death , however materialists and monists, those who believe human beings are made up of life immigrant essay, one entity: the non fiction essays body, believe that death is the academic done cessation of non fiction essays, life . Moreover, life after death may be disembodied (separate from the on child body) as Plato argued, leaving the body to corrupt on earth, or life continues in. Afterlife , Death , Heaven 975 Words | 3 Pages. Life is non fiction essays a great surprise I do not see why death should not be an even greater one “Everyone knows they’re going to die… . but nobody believes it.
If we did, we would do things differently….There’s a better approach. To know you’re going to die, and to be prepared for it at any time. That’s better. By Robert. That way you can actually be more involved in non fiction your life while you’re living.” (Albom 82). Morrie feels that people refuse to papers done, believe that they will come one day die, and therefore, do not lives there. Afterlife , Death , Don Piper 1880 Words | 5 Pages. Euthanasia Imagine yourself being unable to walk, you’ve lost the ability to see and you wince with each long, excruciating drawn out breath, speech not . even a possibility.
You’ve lived an exceptional life , making the most of everyday. You are satisfied with it, content. However, you are now in such unbearable pain, you can’t even cry. Your family are there for you, you know this, but this is not how you wish to be remembered by them, you do not wish to become an emotional and economic burden. Death , Euthanasia , Involuntary euthanasia 954 Words | 3 Pages. pragmatic concerns of financial security and ease of life are his priorities. Non Fiction Essays. He has made himself perfectly at thesis on child labor in nepal, home in the modern economy: he . works as a lawyer dealing with rich men's legal documents. Non Fiction Essays. He is therefore an opposite or complement to Bartleby in many ways.
He is also ill suited to be entrusted with the salvation of another. Bartleby the Scrivener is academic done one of the first great stories of essays, corporate discontent. The emptiness of modern business life is an important theme. The description of the office. Bartleby , Bartleby, the Scrivener , Dead letter office 2478 Words | 6 Pages. July, 15th, 2014 Compare and Contrast essay Why Single Life and review example . Married Life has many differences Live is essays a continuous process of making decisions and setting up goals for the future.
Some people will prefer living it alone, and enjoying the single life , but others may prefer living it with a partner, and of an immigrant enjoy married life . Non Fiction Essays. Everyone in this world faces a problem at some point in life , either single or married. Both single. Family , Husband , Marriage 943 Words | 3 Pages. Being in the Army has huge differences compared to being in the civilian life . Critical Thinking Methods. There are many differences and there are some things that are . the same, being in non fiction essays the Army and being in civilian life . The average day for review essay, a US Army Soldier consists of waking up at 0400 hours in the morning being to first formation; accountability formation by non fiction essays 0630 hours. Then from thinking 0630 to 0730 hours a Soldier will do Physical Readiness training (PRT), wear as the average wake up time for non fiction essays, a civilian would be around 0630.
Continental Army , Fort Sam Houston , Military 1045 Words | 4 Pages. A war started by jealousy, carried on by reputation and ended in tragedy. Thesis Labor In Nepal. In the novel, the non fiction Crucible, written by Arthur Miller, the Parris family, the . Procter Family, Giles Corey, and the Putnam family can be compared and contrasted to their real life personas. Review. Miller demonstrates a rather dramatic story of a group of families pulled together and ripped apart due to a jealous little girl. But his has some big differences to reality. Tituba, a slave from Barbados who was owned by the Parris family. Giles Corey , John Proctor , Mary Warren 1594 Words | 4 Pages. When you are left to make decisions in a hard position, have you ever thought it may be to “play god” in non fiction a loved one’s life ? Playing the by robert wrigley act of . god is unfortunately related to essays, euthanasia because you are doing just that. Euthanasia, which in fact is defined as painlessly killing someone who maybe helpless from a sickness or injury (Webster) has become a big debate over the years. On Child Labor. It has been said that we were put on this earth to live as long as we are entitled to and die when it is time.
With. Death , Euthanasia , Health 1330 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and Contrast Texting vs Calling. 31542 June 25, 2013 Compare and Contrast: Texting VS Calling What would we do without cell phones? Have you ever tried to . leave your phone at home just to see how much it’s really needed in your everyday life ? I have and non fiction it’s a lot harder than you think. Technology has grown so much in the past ten years then you would ever know. From little black and white flip phones to tablets with apps, games, music and pretty much anything you could ever want just in the palm of your hand. In 1973 the. Instant messaging , Mobile phone , SMS 924 Words | 3 Pages. Agreement ____/10 Proper Manuscript form ____/ 5 Mastery -1 for each occurrence The Moral Dilemma of John Proctor . Life or death ? A simple question that most people would instantly know the answer to, and for most that answer would be life . However, what if the choice of life came with consequences.
What if saving your life meant ruining your reputation, harming your friends and your family, and thinking in research methods cause you to be a sinner. Now, with consequences involved for you and. Debut albums , Elizabeth Proctor , John Proctor 1093 Words | 3 Pages. Life and Death Issues in healthcare. ? Life and Death Issues in non fiction essays Healthcare A Review of the academic Case Study Abstract There are many issues raised by life . and death choices in healthcare. Advance directives are a set of directions you give about the healthcare you want if you ever lose the ability to make decisions for yourself. If you have a disease you can choose curative care which is directed at healing or curing the disease or palliative care which involves care that helps relieve the symptoms, but does not cure or treat then disease. Advance health care directive , Five Wishes , Health care 1437 Words | 7 Pages.
The Universe Life and non fiction essays Death of a Star. The Universe: “ Life and Death of a Star” video questions Astronomy Name: Period: 1. There are ________________ stars in our . Papers Done. galaxy. 400 billion 2. What are the pillars of creation? A cloud of dust and essays hydrogen gas, a “stellar nursery” for the birth of new stars, in the Eagle Nebular, 700 light years from Earth 3. Essay. Each contracting cloud can produce a few dozen to __________________ of stars. A star like our sun requires a gas cloud __________________ times the size of our solar system. The temperature. Binary star , Galaxy , Main sequence 684 Words | 2 Pages.
Running Head: COMPARE AND CONTRAST MACS TO PCS ? PAGE * MERGEFORMAT ?1? Compare and Contrast Macs to PCs Matthew Gabriel . Devry University March 11, 2010 VS Compare and Contrast Essay There is a lot to think about when you want to buy a home computer. You have two main choices; you can either buy a Mac or a PC. If I had the money I would buy Mac because I like them better than PCs, I have had both computers before so I know what one I do like better. When you buy a home computer you have. Computer , Floppy disk , Hard disk drive 765 Words | 3 Pages.
Compare and Contrast Iliad vs. Odessey. How do Homer’s the Iliad and essays Odyssey compare and contrast? July 4, 2012 at 8:12 am How do Homer’s the literature Iliad and non fiction Odyssey . compare and contrast? The Iliad begins with Chryses, a prophet of Apollo, coming to a Greek camp and offering valuable “penalty tokens” requesting the return of his daughter who the essay example Greeks had captured in a raid.
Because Agamemnon believed she was rightfully his, he refused. Most of his fellow Greeks wanted him to essays, return her in order to avoid conflict. In order to preserve. Achilles , Agamemnon , Greek mythology 1193 Words | 4 Pages. I. Identification Matters of Life and Death : Defunding Organ Transplants for the State of Arizona II. Management Issues . This case surrounds the controversy brought about by the Arizona state legislature defunding life -saving organ transplant operations. Critical. In 1987, the Arizona state legislature voted to eliminate funding for most organ transplants for the indigent through the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System (AHCCCS). At the same time of non fiction, this decision, the legislature voted to extend.
Arizona , Health care , Health economics 2420 Words | 7 Pages. The death penalty has been an ongoing debate for many years. The following essay will not solve the issue either; I will only try to persuade . the in nepal reader to understand my point of non fiction essays, view. The death penalty has both supporters and literature essay non-supporters. The death penalty is justified in essays certain cases such as Mcveigh Vs State of Indiana; however it is unjustified when in critical in research other cases, including Bloodsworth Vs State of Maryland. The death penalty is a must, especially in essays today's society. With the essay wrigley increase in vicious. Amnesty International , Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States 1856 Words | 5 Pages. The Death and Life of Charlie St. Essays. Cloud. Comm102 Deanna Todd The Death and Life of Charlie St.
Cloud I read “The Death and Life of essay by robert wrigley, . Charlie St. Cloud,” by Ben Sherwood. This book is about Charlie St. Cloud, a normal high school junior whose life completely changes one night, and non fiction essays then takes you on the journey through the events that take place after that horrific night. This was a really good book that has been turned into a movie, and I would highly recommend reading the book. Academic Papers. This paper is non fiction going to tell you in depth about literature the. Black-and-white films , Dariush Mehrjui , Death 975 Words | 3 Pages. ?A Rose for non fiction essays, Emily Vs . A Worn Path In the pages of the short stories, “A Worn Path” and papers “A Rose for Emily” we are able to see a similar side . and connection between the non fiction two. As we look at done, the theme, tone, and morals we are able to better grasp the non fiction conflict in these two stories, while detecting whether the two protagonists, Miss Emily and Phoenix Jackson are psychologically splintered. The main moral in “A Worn Path” is the literature review essay love, and essays life of Phoenix Jackson. “Though quite old and suffering from. A Worn Path , Eudora Welty , First-person narrative 1172 Words | 3 Pages.
Explain the Life and Death of the done Iceman. There are many different theories and conclusions about the death of the Iceman. Konrad Spindler, who led the team studying the essays body, concluded . that Iceman was a shepherd living in example a farming community close to the Val Venosta. Essays. Iceman was well equipped for long absences and his general health was good although he did have some health problems. Literature Review Essay. Most scholars’ opinions however, are conflicted about non fiction how and why he died. According to Spindler, Iceman was a shepherd and may have lived in a farming village. Death , Iceman , Otzi the review Iceman 935 Words | 3 Pages. Topic – Married Vs Single Life . Tittle: A Full Heart Combined the Two or a Half Heart Only You. Non Fiction Essays. I-INTRODUCTION- A-Hook: . People do not have to get married to essay example, be happy. Non Fiction. However, it is quite a bit lonely to go to the theater to on child, watch a movie by yourself – Not only that, but you are also experiencing the feelings of non fiction essays, being uninhabited of a single life . B- Connecting information: Now if you start to essay, think about you are one of those loneliness and it is time for you to find someone to live with.
Philosophy of essays, love , Single person 885 Words | 3 Pages.